# Mathematics

At the Rushmere Park Academy we believe it is never too early to explore numbers. Real life often provides the best opportunities to develop early maths skills like counting and recognising numbers. We provide learning opportunities through exploration, through songs, rhymes and fun activities. We continue to build upon these learning experiences throughout the year phases, revisiting, embedding and extending the pupils knowledge and understanding, across the whole of our curriculum. Our aim is to enable every child to build on their prior learning and to utilise these new skills in all aspects of the future lives.

## early years & reception

At The Rushmere Park Academy In Reception, your child will be introduced to numbers and counting, and will start to use basic mathematical language. An interest in maths and problem-solving will be encouraged through maths games and fun activities.

Much of your children’s learning will come from exploring and talking about maths in the world around them.

In Reception, your child will learn to:

- Count reliably with numbers from 1 to 20, place them in order and say which number is one more or one less than a given number.
- Use quantities and objects to add and subtract 2 single-digit numbers and count on or back to find the answer.
- Use everyday language to talk about size, weight, capacity, position, distance, time, and money to compare quantities and objects and to solve problems.
- Recognise, create, and describe patterns.
- Explore characteristics of everyday objects and shapes and use mathematical language to describe them.

## ks1 - year 1

In Year 1, children will start to build confidence working with numbers, through developing their counting and calculation skills. They will also gain an understanding of halves and quarters, start to measure, and tell the time, and learn about some 2D and 3D shapes.

Children will be taught to count forwards and backwards to 100, add and subtract numbers to 20, and be introduced to the idea of multiplying and dividing. They will be encouraged to use objects to help them solve simple problems in a practical way.

Much of the children’s learning will come from exploring and talking about maths in the world around them.

#### Children will learn:

**Number & place value**

In Year 1, children will be expected to:

- work with numbers up to 100, counting on or back from any number and in steps of 2, 5 or 10. This includes:
- reading and writing numerals to 100 and number names to 20 in words
- using objects and number lines to represent numbers
- finding one more and one less than any number.

**Addition & subtraction**

In Year 1, children will be expected to:

- be able to read, write and understand mathematical ideas using addition (+), subtraction (–) and equals (=) signs. This includes:
- making and using number bonds to 10 and then to 20
- adding and subtracting one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including 0
- solving simple problems using objects, drawings, diagrams and symbols, including missing number problems such as 7 = ? – 9.

**Multiplication & division**

In Year 1, children will be expected to:

- be able to solve simple multiplication and division problems using objects, drawings and arrays to help them. This includes:
- counting in steps of 2, 5 and 10 and understanding that, for example 3 × 2 is the same as 2 + 2 + 2
- using sharing and grouping to solve division problems
- beginning to understand the relationship between multiplication and division.

**Fractions**

In Year 1, children will be expected to:

- be recognise, find and name halves and quarters of objects, shapes and quantities. This includes:
- understanding halving as sharing equally into two parts or groups
- understand finding a quarter as sharing into four equal parts or groups
- understanding that finding a half is the same as dividing by 2 and finding a quarter is the same as dividing by 4.

**Geometry**

In Year 1, children will be expected to:

- be able to identify simple flat (2D) and solid (3D) shapes and use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement. This includes:
- recognising and name common 2D shapes, such as circles, triangles, rectangles and squares
- recognising and name common 3D shapes, such as spheres, pyramids, cones, cuboids and cubes
- describing whole, half, quarter and three-quarter turn

**Measurement**

In Year 1, children will be expected to:

- be explore measurement in relation to length, height, weight, volume, time and money. This includes:
- measuring and comparing lengths, heights, weights and capacities
- telling the time to the hour and half hour
- recognising and knowing the value of different coins and notes.

## ks1 - year 2

In Year 2, children will continue to develop their counting and calculation skills, learning different ways to multiply and divide. They will also extend their understanding of fractions. They will measure length, weight, volume, temperature, time and money, discover more about 2D and 3D shapes, and begin to learn about statistics.

They’ll count in steps of 2, 3, 5 and 10 and learn number bonds to 20. They’ll partition numbers into 10s and 1s to add and subtract one-digit and two-digit numbers. They will be taught the 2, 5 and 10 times tables and how to find 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 3/4 of quantities and shapes.

Much of their learning will come from exploring with objects to solve problems practically.

#### Children will learn:

**Number & place value**

In Year 2, children will be expected to:

- recognise tens and ones in 2-digit numbers (for example 23 has 2 tens and 3 ones) and use these to order numbers to 100. This includes:
- counting in steps of 2, 3, 5 and 10
- using more than (>), less than (<) and equals (=) symbols to compare numbers
- using place value and number facts to solve problems.

**Addition & subtraction**

In Year 2, children will be expected to:

- be able to solve addition and subtraction problems using numbers with one and two digits. This includes:
- knowing and using addition and subtraction facts up to 20 and working out related addition and subtraction facts to 100
- adding and subtracting numbers using objects, pictures and drawings, and also solving these problems mentally
- understanding that addition and subtraction have an inverse relationship, i.e. they undo each other, and using this to check their calculations.

**Multiplication & division**

In Year 2, children will be expected to:

- use a range of methods to solve multiplication and division problems, including using practical resources and mental methods. This includes:
- knowing and using multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 times tables
- recognising and identifying odd and even numbers
- using the symbols ×, ÷ and = to record multiplication and division calculations.

**Fractions**

In Year 2, children will be expected to:

- be able to recognise and use the fractions
- finding fractions of lengths, shapes, sets of objects and quantities
- writing simple fractions, such as 1/2 of 6 = 3
- recognising that 2/4 and 1/2 mean the same.

**Geometry**

In Year 2, children will be expected to:

- be able to compare and sort common 2D and 3D shapes and everyday objects and continue patterns of shapes. This includes:
- describing 2D shapes including number of sides and lines of symmetry
- describing 3D shapes including number of faces, edges and vertices
- describing turns using clockwise, anti-clockwise and right angles.

**Measurement**

In Year 2, children will be expected to:

- use standard units to measure length, mass (weight), capacity and temperature, compare intervals of time and solve simple problems with money. This includes:
- comparing and ordering measures such as metres (m), centimetres (cm), kilograms (kg), grams (g), degrees Celsius (°C), litres (l) and millilitres (ml)
- telling the time to five minutes, including quarter to and quarter past
- choosing coins or notes to make a given amount of money and working out change.

**Statistics**

In Year 2, children will begin to:

- record, collate, organise, and compare information using simple ways to present data. This includes:
- interpreting and constructing simple pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams, and tables
- counting objects in categories to sort data
- asking and answering simple questions about data.

## lower ks2 - year 3

In Year 3, children will continue to develop their understanding of numbers and start to calculate using formal written methods. They will learn a lot more about fractions, including tenths. They will find perimeters of 2D shapes, use the 24-hour clock, recognise angles, and start to use bar charts.

They’ll count in steps of 4, 8, 50 and 100 and order numbers to 1000. They’ll partition numbers into 100s, 10s and 1s, add and subtract three-digit numbers, and multiply two-digit by one-digit numbers. They will be taught the 3, 4, and 8 times tables and begin to add and subtract fractions.

#### Children will learn:

In year 3 children will be expected to:

- recognise hundreds, tens and ones in 3-digit numbers (for example 423 has 4 hundreds, 2 tens and 3 ones). This includes:
- counting in steps of 4, 8, 50 and 100
- reading, writing, comparing, and ordering numbers to 1000
- finding 10 or 100 more or less than a number.

**Addition & subtraction**

In Year 3, children will be expected to:

- be able to use a range of strategies to solve problems mentally and learn formal written methods for column addition and column subtraction. This includes:
- adding and subtracting numbers with up to three digits
- estimating answers to problems before working them out accurately and checking using the inverse operation, i.e. using addition to check subtraction and vice versa
- explaining how they have solved a problem and why they chose a particular method.

**Multiplication & division**

In Year 3, children will be expected to:

- use a range of strategies to solve problems mentally and begin to learn formal written methods for short multiplication and short division. This includes:
- knowing and using multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 times tables
- multiplying two-digit by one-digit numbers
- understanding that multiplication and division have an inverse relationship, i.e. they undo each other, and using this to check their calculations.

Fractions

In Year 3, children will be expected to be able to:

- compare and order fractions and begin to add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. This includes:
- counting up and down in tenths and connecting tenths to dividing by 10
- using unit and non-unit fractions
- understanding equivalent fractions, that is fractions that have the same value such as 2/5 = 4/10

**Geometry**

In Year 3, children will be expected to:

- use accurate mathematical language to describe properties of a wider range of symmetrical and non-symmetrical shapes. This includes:
- drawing 2D shapes and making 3D shapes
- identifying angles greater or less than a right angle
- identifying horizontal, vertical, parallel, and perpendicular lines.

**Measurement**

In Year 3, children will be expected to:

- be able to add and subtract measurements, tell the time to the nearest minute, and compare durations of time. This includes:
- measuring and adding to find the perimeter of 2D shapes
- telling the time using 12-hour and 24-hour clocks, including Roman numerals I to XII for 1 to 12
- adding and subtracting amounts of money to give change.

**Statistics**

In Year 3, children will interpret and present data in a range of ways. This includes:

- interpreting and making bar charts, pictograms, and tables
- understanding information presented using scales
- solving one-step and two-step problems using data.

## lower ks2 - year 4

In Year 4, children will develop their mental and written calculation skills using larger positive numbers and fractions. They will meet negative and decimal numbers, as well as some Roman numerals. They will convert between units of measurement, find perimeters and areas, and learn more about angles and symmetry. They will plot shapes on coordinate grids and start to use timeline graphs.

They’ll count in steps of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000, add and subtract four-digit numbers and multiply three-digit by one-digit numbers. They will know all the times tables up to 12 x 12 and be able to divide by 10 and 100 to give decimal answers. They’ll round numbers to the nearest 10, 100 and 1000, or whole number for decimals.

**Number & place value**

In Year 4, children will be expected to:

- order and compare numbers beyond 1000 using place value in 4-digit numbers (for example 1423 has 1 thousand, 4 hundreds, 2 tens and 3 ones). This includes:
- counting in steps of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000
- counting backwards through zero to include negative numbers
- rounding any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000.

**Addition & subtraction**

In Year 4, children will be expected to:

- be able to solve addition and subtraction problems involving numbers up to four digits. This includes:
- choosing from a variety of methods, including mental calculations, using objects, diagrams, or drawings such as number lines, models such as the area/grid method or written column addition and column subtraction
- estimating answers before calculating accurately and checking answers by understanding that addition and subtraction are inverse operations
- solving two-step word problems which require them to solve two different calculations before coming to the answer.

**Multiplication & division**

In Year 4, children will be expected to:

- be able to use formal written methods of short multiplication and short division confidently. This includes:
- knowing and using multiplication and division facts for all times tables up to 12 × 12
- multiplying three-digit by one-digit numbers
- multiplying three numbers together.

**Fractions & decimals**

In Year 4, children will be expected to:

- explore the link between fractions and multiplication/division and begin to learn about decimals. This includes:
- solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals
- recognising and writing tenths and hundredths as decimals
- rounding decimal numbers with one decimal place to the nearest whole number.

**Geometry**

In Year 4, children will be expected to:

- extend their knowledge of properties of shapes and be able to describe the position of shapes on a coordinate grid. This includes:
- comparing shapes such as quadrilaterals and triangles based on their properties and sizes
- drawing mirror images of shapes in lines of symmetry
- plotting points and describing how shapes move up/down/left/right on a coordinate grid.

**Measurement**

In Year 4, children will be expected to:

- be able convert between some units of measurement, such as kilometres to metres and calculate measurements in relation to shapes. This includes:
- working out the perimeter and area of rectilinear shapes
- solving problems involving converting units of time
- adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing measurements including money.

**Statistics**

In Year 4, children will:

- interpret and present data in bar charts, pictograms, tables, and other graphs. They will begin to understand how data can show changes over time. This includes:
- interpreting and presenting discrete and continuous data using graphs
- interpreting and making time graphs (a type of line graph)
- solving problems by comparing, adding, and subtracting data from tables, charts, and graphs.